Leakage Current Tester
Hipot is an abbreviation for high potential. Traditionally, Hipot is a term given to a class of electrical safety testing instruments used to verify electrical insulation in finished appliances, cables or other wired assemblies, printed circuit boards, electric motors, and transformers. The term Hypot is a trademark for hipot testers made by Associated Research.
A Hipot test (also called a Dielectric Withstand test) verifies that the insulation of a product or component is sufficient to protect the operator from electrical shock. In a typical Hipot test, high voltage is applied between a product's current-carrying conductors and its metallic chassis. The resulting current that flows through the insulation, known as leakage current, is monitored by the tester. The theory behind the test is that if a deliberate over-application of test voltage does not cause the insulation to break down, the product will be safe to use under normal operating conditions -- hence the name, Dielectic Withstand test.
Dielectric breakdown Test. The test voltage is increased until the dielectric fails, or breaks down, allowing too much current to flow. The dielectric is often destroyed by this test so this test is used on a random sample basis. This test allows designers to estimate the breakdown voltage of a product's design.
Dielectric Withstand Test. A standard test voltage is applied (below the established Breakdown Voltage) and the resulting leakage current is monitored. The leakage current must be below a preset limit or the test is considered to have failed. This test is non-destructive and is usually required by safety agencies to be performed as a 100% production line test on all products before they leave the factory.
Insulation Resistance Test. This test is used to provide a quantifiable resistance value for all of a product's insulation. The test voltage is applied in the same fashion as a standard Hipot test, but is specified to be Direct Current (DC). The voltage and measured current value are used to calculate the resistance of the insulation.
For Ground Bond Test a high current (usually 25-30A AC) is applied to the product under test to verify that all conductive parts of said product (exposed to the user) are connected to power line ground.